Barbara P
Barbara P

A Comprehensive Look at Types of Arguments - Definition and Examples

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Published on: Mar 2, 2023

Last updated on: Mar 21, 2023

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You want to write an essay that makes strong and valid arguments, but you're not sure how. 

Most people think that writing an argumentative essay means being pushy or aggressive. But good writing is about finding a balance between sharing your opinion and respecting the reader's intelligence.

And the answer to finding this balance can be tricky. However, this blog will help you make better-informed decisions! 

Whether it's analyzing strengths and weaknesses or understanding every argument type - we have your back.

Keep reading for a closer look at each type!

Types of Argumentative Essay

Argumentative essays are a common type of essay that can cover many topics. It is basically an opinionated piece of writing. 

It takes a stand on a particular point and tries to support it with evidence and reasoning. There are several types of arguments that you can use when writing an argumentative essay. 

It is important to know the difference between different types of arguments when you are writing an essay. 

This will help you write your essay in a way that makes your argument more effective.

Here are the types of arguments in more detail:

Aristotelian Argument 

An Aristotelian argument, also known as a classical argument, uses logic to explain how something can be true or false. This type of argument relies heavily on deductive reasoning and uses premises. 

These are statements that are assumed to be true, in order to arrive at a conclusion. This type of argument is usually used in philosophy and religion.

For example:

Premise 1: The economy is in a bad state. 

Premise 2: Governments are responsible for managing the economy. 

Conclusion: Therefore, governments must take action to improve the economic situation.

Toulmin Argument 

The toulmin argument is a type of argument that uses inductive reasoning to build an argument. Inductive reasoning takes specific observations and draws general conclusions from them. 

This type of argument includes evidence as well as rebuttals, which are arguments against the opposing point of view. It can be used in debates or written essays.

For example: 

Premise 1: Eating junk food can make people fat. 

Evidence: Studies have shown that people who eat large amounts of processed and refined foods are more likely to gain weight than those who do not. 

Rebuttal: However, some people may be able to control their weight even if they eat junk food. 

Conclusion: Therefore, while it is true that eating junk food can make people fat, some people may be able to maintain a healthy weight even if they eat it. 

Rogerian Argument

A Rogerian argument is a type of argument that uses compromise and understanding to build an argument. It begins by acknowledging the opposing point of view, and then it builds on that by finding common ground. 

It acknowledges both sides of the argument and seeks to find a solution that works for both. This type of argument is often used in persuasive writing, such as political speeches or debates.

For example: 

Acknowledge Opposing Point of View:  We recognize that some people are concerned about the environmental impact of using fossil fuels. 

Common Ground: However, we also understand that people need an affordable and reliable source of energy to power their homes and businesses. 

Conclusion: Therefore, we should focus on developing renewable sources of energy while still recognizing the importance of using fossil fuels as part of an energy mix.

Types of Argument Fallacies

Argument fallacies occur when an argument is structured in a way that is illogical or weak. It's important to be aware of different types of argument fallacies so you can avoid them.

Here are some of the most common logical fallacies:

Ad Hominem 

Ad hominem fallacies occur when the speaker attacks a person, rather than addressing the argument itself. This is an attempt to discredit someone's opinion, rather than looking at the facts.

Example: "John is wrong about his opinion on climate change because he's a Republican."

Strawman Argument 

A Strawman Argument occurs when someone sets up a false argument with the intention of attacking it. This is done in order to win an argument without having to address any of the actual facts or evidence.

Example: "John's opinion on climate change is that it's a natural cycle, so we shouldn't be worried about it."

Appeal to Ignorance 

An appeal to ignorance occurs when someone argues that something is true because there is no evidence to the contrary. This ignores any evidence that may exist which could prove the counterarguments.

Example: "Aliens don't exist because there is no proof they do".

False Dilemma 

A false dilemma occurs when someone presents a situation as if there are only two possible outcomes, when in reality there may be more. This ignores any other potential solutions or results.

Example: "You must either believe in climate change or deny it".

Slippery Slope Fallacy 

The slippery slope fallacy occurs when someone argues that if one thing happens, it will lead to a chain reaction of other events. This ignores the fact that there may be many possible outcomes and is often used to create fear or panic.

Example: "If we don't act now on climate change, the world will end".

Circular Argument 

A circular argument occurs when an argument uses the same facts or premises to support its conclusion. This creates a logical loop that fails to present any new evidence or ideas.

Example: "Climate change is happening because it's getting warmer".

Hasty Generalization 

A hasty generalization occurs when someone draws conclusions about a group of people or things based on only a small sample size. This ignores any other potential evidence that could contradict the conclusion.

Example: "All climate scientists agree that global warming is happening".

Red Herring Fallacy 

The red herring fallacy occurs when someone introduces an irrelevant topic in order to distract from the issue at hand. This is often used as a way to avoid answering difficult questions or addressing counterarguments.

Example: "We shouldn't worry about climate change because there are more pressing issues".

Appeal to Hypocrisy 

An appeal to hypocrisy occurs when someone points out that their opponent is not behaving consistently with the argument they are making. This ignores any other evidence or arguments which could support the point at hand.

Example: "You can't argue against climate change when you don't recycle".

Causal Fallacy 

A causal fallacy occurs when someone argues that because two events have occurred together in the past, they must always occur together. This ignores any other potential causes or factors which could be relevant.

Example: "It must be sunny because it's warm outside".

The Fallacy of Sunk Costs 

It happens when a person believes that they should keep investing in something because they have already put in time or money. This idea ignores any proof that shows the investment is not worth it. 

In other words, just because someone has already invested in something, it doesn't mean they should keep doing it if it's not worth it.

Example: "We can't stop working on this climate change project, we've already spent too much time and money on it".

Appeal to Authority 

An appeal to authority occurs when someone argues that because someone else has said or believes something, it must be true. This ignores any evidence which could prove the statement wrong.

Example: "Bill Gates says global warming is happening so it must be true".


Equivocation occurs when someone uses ambiguous language to make an argument. This usually involves using words or phrases that can have more than one meaning. 

This can be used to mislead or confuse the audience.

Example: "Climate change is a natural phenomenon".

Appeal to Pity 

It occurs when someone tries to persuade an audience by appealing to their emotions. It works by making them sympathetic toward the speaker or their argument. This ignores any facts or evidence which could disprove the statement.

Example: "We need to act on climate change or else future generations will suffer".

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Bandwagon Fallacy 

The bandwagon fallacy occurs when someone tries to persuade an audience by appealing to peer pressure or the idea that ‘everyone else is doing it'. This ignores any evidence which could suggest that the proposed action may not be the best choice.

Example: "We should take action on climate change because all our friends are doing it".

Types of Argument in Philosophy

Philosophy uses arguments to present and evaluate different claims. An argument in philosophy is a set of facts or ideas that support a conclusion. 

Philosophers use arguments to show that their ideas about something are correct. There are three different types of arguments: inductive, deductive, and abductive. 

Each type of argument is set up differently and uses different methods.

Deductive Arguments

Deductive arguments are a type of argument where the premises guarantee the conclusion. The premises must be true for the conclusion to be necessarily true. This type of argument is also known as a syllogism and can take many forms.

All humans are mortal. 
Joe is a human. 
Therefore, Joe is mortal.

Inductive Arguments 

Inductive arguments are a type of argument where the premises suggest that the conclusion is probably true. They do not guarantee that the conclusion is true, and there may be other factors or evidence which could prove it false.

Most cats have fur. 
This cat has fur. 
Therefore, this cat is likely to be a cat.

Watch this informative video on inductive and deductive arguments to get a better idea:

Abductive Arguments 

Abductive arguments are a type of argument where the premises suggest an explanation that makes sense given the evidence. This type of argument relies heavily on inference and is usually used to explain why something happened or identify its cause.

The windows were broken and there was glass on the floor. 
Therefore, it is likely that someone broke the windows.

These are just a few of the many types of arguments which can be used in philosophy. By understanding how each type works, you can better evaluate philosophical claims. 

Now that you know the different types of arguments, and how to spot fallacious ones, you are well-prepared to write a strong argumentative essay. 

If you still need help, our professional writing service is here for you.

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They will ensure that your essay is free of any errors, is organized, and has a professional tone. Moreover, they make sure your essay has all the necessary information to get you an A+. 

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Barbara P


Barbara P (Literature, Marketing)

Barbara has a Ph.D. in public health from an Ivy League university and extensive experience working in the medical field. With her practical experience conducting research on various health issues, she is skilled in writing innovative papers on healthcare. Her many works have been published in multiple publications.

Barbara has a Ph.D. in public health from an Ivy League university and extensive experience working in the medical field. With her practical experience conducting research on various health issues, she is skilled in writing innovative papers on healthcare. Her many works have been published in multiple publications.

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