Different types of arguments in academic writing

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Presenting one's point of view properly in words could be a difficult task. It is a skill for which an essay writer has to be very careful and precise. While arguing in academic writing, you are not just trying to put your point of view out there but are also trying to persuade the readers. Throughout your academic journey, you will have to write several argumentative essays. And in your academic writing, you will come across many types of arguments.

In this blog, we will be looking at the three most commonly used types of arguments and will discuss how you can present your thoughts according to those types in a more organized and effective way.

Types of arguments

According to the Aristotle Rhetorical Triangle, there are three most effective ways of presenting one's point of view through arguments in academic writing. Which type of argument will be best suited for your writing depends upon the topic and the rhetorical situation. Your goal is to use that argument which you think will be best for your audience to understand your point of view.

Toulmin Argument: This argument structure was introduced by a British Philosopher, Stephen Toulmin. According to the Toulmin method, you must include six elements while writing an effective argument:

  • Claims: In the first section of your argument, you provide your claim, which is like your thesis statement. You clearly state your position.
  • Data: In this section, you provide brief background information on which you are basing your argument.
  • Warrant: Here you will develop a bridge between your thesis/claim and the provide data through logical reasoning. This part would make the readers realize that you have a valid argument.
  • Backing: Here you provide backing for your argument. In this part, you write about evidence that supports your claim. You can also address hypothetical questions that you think may arise in the minds of your audience.
  • Rebuttal: In rebuttal, you are to report and invalidate the opposing point of view. This will further strengthen your claim.
  • Qualifiers: In this section, you provide certain situations in which your argument will hold and others in which your claim may not be true. They strengthen your claim. You must not use very broad qualifiers like “always.”

Rogerian Argument: This argument method was developed by eth Carl Rogers. In these types of arguments, you have to find the middle ground between yourself and the reader. Here is how you will develop a Rogerian argument:

  • Introduce the problem: You should begin by introducing the problem that you are aiming to resolve.
  • Understanding opposing views: Before you present your view on the problem, you should present the opposing point of view. This helps you achieve the middle ground.
  • Stating your claim: In this section, you present your point of view, without completely invalidating the opposing point of view.
  • Bridge the gap between the two sides: In this section, you will look at both positions in parallel and would help your audience realize the benefits of the middle ground.
  • Conclusion: Here you will state the benefits that your readers would enjoy by following the middle ground.

Aristotelian Argument: This type of argument was developed by the famous Greek philosopher, Aristotle. The basic format of an Aristotelian argument is as follow:

  • Introducing the issue: You begin by introducing the issue, the main point that your thesis or essay would be about.
  • Presenting your case: Here you will explain your position on the issue.
  • Addressing the opposition: In this section, you will individually refute the opposing claims.
  • Proving your side: Here you will prove how your position is victorious and better than the other.
  • Conclude: Here you will conclude the writing by summarizing the main points and can also give a call to action in the end.

This guide provides you a detailed insight about the different types of argument. However, if you are unfamiliar to use them, get professional help from an essay writing service at affordable rates.

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